Window Restoration and Preservation

Restoration and preservation of the large double hung window sets on the German American Museum, Library and Family History Center. Restored window locations:

This huge multi-year historic preservation project has been funded by many avid individual and family supporters, both locally and across the Nation; local banks and manufacturing businesses; the State of Iowa Department of Cultural Affairs matching fund grants; the Fayette County Community Foundation matching fund grants; the American Legion Father Aloysius Schmitt Post 691; the Catholic Order of Foresters; and the National Catholic Society of Foresters. This restoration and preservation team effort is an awesome example of re-purposing of a historic building, the St. Luke School (1911 to 1967), later St. Luke & St. John School, that was placed in June 2005 on the National Register of Historic Places.

Native American Workshop Draws Strong Interest

L to R: Janet Bodensteiner, Katherine Kuennen, Mel Bodensteiner, Clair Blong, Collin Price, Jon Greendeer, Matthew Blong, Glenn Blong, Phyllis Orthaus, Jeanette Dietzenbach

St. Lucas residents were pleasantly surprised on Wednesday, June 20th with the large stream of cars poured into this small town for the workshop. Over 175 persons from far and wide came to participate in this all-day workshop. Even in late afternoon 55 history minded persons partook in the field trip to 4 historic Winnebago (now the Ho-Chunk Nation) Subagency sites near the Turkey River just Northeast of St. Lucas.

The Ho-Chunk Nation: perseverance and resiliency

Collin Price from the Office of the President of the Ho-Chunk Nation was the keynote speaker and spoke to the perseverance and resiliency of his people. Collin stated “The Ho-Chunk Nation, a Federally recognized tribe, today consists of over 8,000 members and its leadership team is responsible for over 3,500 employees in the tribal government and its gaming industry”.

Collin emphasized that the Ho-Chunk Nation is decentralized throughout Wisconsin but has a major presence in many communities. The Ho-Chunk Nation is an active supporter of many community causes like fire departments and emergency medical services. For its members, the Ho-Chunk Nation is developing cultural awareness programs to revive and maintain its rich cultural heritage, especially its language.

The Ho-Chunk Nation is very honored by the participation of many of its soldiers as Code Talkers, the famed World War II program for coding of verbal battlefield messages. A special President honor was given to them for this service to the Nation.

The Ho-Chunk leadership team actively works with all levels of government, municipal, county, state and Federal to protect their mounds and burial sites throughout Wisconsin and Iowa. Collin noted a recent case where ancient mounds were threatened by quarrying operations.

Preserving Ho-Chunk Nation historic sites

During the 1830s and 1840s, the Neutral Ground was home to thousands of Ho-Chunk and associated government officials, soldiers, and traders. Archeological traces of these villages, camp sites, battlefields, burial grounds, trading posts, and other sites still exist in northeast Iowa, but are difficult to relocate.

Cynthia Peterson spoke about some of the known Ho-Chunk related sites, efforts to identify more sites, and the nomination of some of these to the National Register of Historic Places. This is a long and difficult process.

Comparison of ethnic groups

La Raw Maran, Emeritus professor, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, spoke on the “Past, Present and Future of Ethnic Peoples”. LaRaw stated that a people’s organized life actually requires traditional culture. He emphasized that ethnic peoples had to make drastic adaptation to survive as living communities in response to nation-building politics of 19th and 20th centuries.

American Indian adaptation today demonstrates significant accomplishments in political accommodation. Likewise, German American communities show foresight in programs to preserve and promote German heritage as German-American culture. LaRaw emphasized the German American and Ho-Chunk Nation communities are developing visions of the future that actually in many ways resemble each other and can learn from each other.

Ho-Chunk Nation former president challenges the audience

Jon Greendeer, executive director of Ho-Chunk Nation cultural affairs, challenged the audience to learn more about the Ho-Chunk Nation. Jon spoke powerfully in the Ho-Chunk language for a time. His elders had charged him to learn the Ho-Chunk language and the traditional ways to preserve their heritage. Jon stated “Few of our members can perform some of the traditional tasks. We need instill these skills in our youth.

Jon emphasized “The Ho-Chunk Nation wants the same things as the larger community, like economic development, but do not build on our sacred mounds and burial grounds. We are making a concerted effort to proactively work the communities to advance common interests.

“I was very impressed by the Ho-Chunk Nation's entrepreneurial spirit”, stated Julio Gutierrez, a volunteer from Colorado Springs and former U.S. Navy captain. From what I read and heard, the Ho-Chunks have been smart in engaging Federal, state, and local governments and commercial enterprises in advance to prevent conflicts or misunderstandings. This policy has worked well for them in Wisconsin, where Ho-Chunk businesses are the largest employers in at least two counties.”

Geology and Human Habitation in the Upper Mississippi Valley

Katherine McCarville, professor of Geology at Upper Iowa University emphasized that the geology and geomorphology of an area influence the culture or cultures that inhabit that area, through features of the landscape and the availability and quality of earth resources.  These resources include stone, clay, mineral and fuel resources, and soils. 

Many cultures have legends and stories that have been inspired by actual events that can be confirmed through the geologic record.  For example, in the Pacific Northwest, indigenous stories incorporate aspects of the draining of Lake Missoula and catastrophic flooding of the Channeled Scablands. 

Katherine noted that similar flooding events associated with the most recent episode of continental glaciation in North America have been documented in Minnesota and Wisconsin and are now suspected to have affected northeast Iowa as well.

Sacred Places: NE Iowa Rock Art Legacy

Russell Baldner’s presentation, Sacred Places: An Introduction to Northeast Iowa’s Native American Rock Art Legacy,” featured striking photographs of indigenous petroglyphs (rock carvings), pictographs (painted figures), and natural landscape. The presentation also included archaeological and environmental context, a primer of rock art fundamentals, and a survey of natural and human threats to and means of preserving northeast Iowa’s late prehistoric to early historic indigenous rock art heritage.

Baldner shared historical and personal insights from his more than thirty years of field, archival, and documentary research. Although often an unknown, Native American rock art remains a rare, fragile, intriguing facet of Iowa’s indigenous cultural heritage. It is also one of the state’s most extraordinary cultural resources.

Native American river names

Matthew Blong with a linguistics degree from Yale University, presented on "River-Names of Native American and European Origins: A Brief Historical Linguistic Overview."  Matthew explained that river-names can tell us a great deal about the linguistic heritage of the people who named them. Matthew stated “Iowa, Wisconsin and the Upper Midwest have river-names of both Native American as well as European origin.  Most Native American river-names in this region stem from two language families, Siouan, to which the Ho-Chunk language belongs, and Algonquian.

Whirling Thunder, Life of a Winnebago Chief

Whirling Thunder was one of the important Winnebago chiefs who lived on the Neutral Ground in Iowa during the 1840's.  Tereasa Lenius examined his heroic, tragic, life from his fighting with the British in the War of 1812 to his death near the Turkey River Mission in 1847 as well as the uncertainty over his burial site.  Lenius hopes that the attendees left with a greater respect for the lives of the Winnebago and the many family members they left behind interred in Iowa soil. 

Winnebago in the Turkey River area

Norbert Hackman of Fort Atkinson recalled his father telling of Chris Schmitt and Ed Hackman, his father, employing Winnebago in the depression era and the frequent encounters at fishing spots on the Turkey River near the former Indian Subagency. Adrian Kuennen spoke quietly and eloquently of Joe Kuennen, his father, encountering Winnebago elders visiting sacred spaces and burial sites, and actually feeling the presence of spirits when he walked these lands.

Adrian electrified the large audience: “My father and the other school children in St. Lucas, loved the highlight of each autumn season. They watched from the school windows and street as a long caravan of Winnebago men on colorful ponies, followed by an endless stream of wagons and carts, and finally the women and children, were leaving their summer encampment on former Indian Subagency land near the Turkey River, passed through St. Lucas. They were joined by Winnebago staying along the Little Turkey River south of Waucoma and the entire band headed eastward to winter quarters along the Mississippi River and in Wisconsin.

St. Francis Solanus Indian Mission and School

The Ojibwe art and crafts display was a popular attraction at the event. The exhibit demonstrated the fine craftsmanship of authentic Ojibwe art. Fine items included beautiful jewelry, including some ceremonial jewelry, dream catchers, birchbark baskets, moccasins, decorative drums, dolls, religious items, art pieces and more. These items were offered for sale and many attendees of the workshop chose to purchase. The items are made by the parishioners of the St. Francis Solanus Mission and other Ojibwe crafts persons.

All proceeds from the crafts go to the St. Francis Solanus School which has been in existence for more than a century. The school is fully accredited: Pre-K through 8th grade. The school is a quality school and embraces both basics and educational innovation. The school depends predominantly on donations and is the only non-tuition Catholic school in Sawyer County.

St. Francis School and Mission is located on the Lac Courte Oreilles Indian Reservation of the village of Reserve, Wisconsin, approximately 12 miles from Hayward, Wisconsin. The school is staffed by the School Sisters of St. Francis. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The mission website is

On Monday, June 18th, Sr. Felissa Zander, head of the school staff, traveled to St. Lucas to visit the German American Museum. Sister Zander commented on the beautiful rolling countryside and the wonderful care of the farms and houses in this area. She also toured St. Luke's Church, the historic Fort Atkinson and St. Wenceslaus Church, Spillville. Sister Zander was thrilled to visit Fort Atkinson as she teaches that history to the school children. She is also an organist and enjoyed the tracker church organs at St. Luke's, St. Lucas, and St. Wenceslaus, Spillville.

Field Trip to the Turkey River Subagency Sites

Rt. Rev. Terry Landsgaard gave an overview of the history and significance of the sites. As the afternoon drew to a close, over 55 members of the audience in a caravan of 25 cars headed into the threatening skies and windy outdoors. At the former Turkey River Indian Subagency a heavy rain began to fall. Undeterred, the Rev. Terry Landsgaard lectured on the Winnebago school to eager but rain-soaked listeners who trudged up the muddy road. Approximately 250 Indian children and adults attended the school. Their families lived along the Turkey River, in nearby woodlands and along tributaries like the Bass Creek.

The large caravan meandered its way over muddy roads to the nearby Huber family homestead. Ruth Huber Pavlovec and Helen Huber Langreck shared stories of their growing up in this old late 1850’s limestone house that served as post office and road house during those early decades of European settlement in the area. Helen and Ruth spoke of the nearby Indian burials and their strong desire to respect these sacred spaces. Their love of the old stone house of their childhood shined through their emotionally remarks. Rev. Landsgaard emphasized the historical significance of this site to both the Winnebago and the European settlers.

The Chapel of St. Anthony de Padua, the smallest church, was the third stop. Rev. Landsgaard recited the story of the soldier in Napoleon’s Army in Russia who promised to build a chapel for prayer, if he could escape the harsh northern winter and the constantly threatening Russian forces. The Chapel grounds contains the only known remaining building from the Turkey River Subagency.

According to Tom Huber, the Huber family had it professionally restored in the 1980s. It was moved from the Zeno Huber farm to the present site. The tour participants engaged in a lively conversation about Winnebago living at and near this site along the Turkey River until the post-World War II period and of Winnebago burials in nearby woodlands.

The rain did not prevent the group from visiting the Winnebago former living site at the confluence of the Bass Creek with the Turkey River. Thirty persons stood under a beautiful burr oak tree as they exchanged stories of Winnebago presence until recent decades.

Clair Blong recalled “Lee Stammeyer, now 97 years old, who as a teenager, saw the Winnebago erect three large tents in the 1930s at this Turkey River site and they spend the summer hunting, fishing and occasional farm work in exchange of chickens and piglets”. The group spontaneously gathered in a large circle under this mighty oak tree and continued their animated discussion of historic cross-cultural encounters for nearly an hour as the summer solstice approached.

Impressions on the Workshop

In summing up his reactions to the workshop, Collin Price, the Ho-Chunk Nation public relations officer stated: “Today was a tremendous opportunity to give some insight into our Ho Chunk people and our shared history. I think every attendee learned something new including myself. The rich history and different perspectives made for great discussions and we're certainly excited about returning to Saint Lucas.

I was gratified to see the descendants of the peoples who settled and nurtured these lands of northeastern Iowa for the past 13,000 years coming together in this Workshop to learn and honor the history and the cultures that went before us,” stated Julio Gutierrez of Colorado Springs.

Jeanette Dietzenbach of Decorah emphasized, “The workshop was a unique opportunity to study and celebrate part of the history of this area which we tend to take for granted. Premier quality presenters and a lot to absorb. Phyllis Orthaus, a Museum volunteer, stated, “This workshop was a awesome team effort and greatly exceeded our expectations.

Jane Keating of Shell Rock delighted in noting, “It was a well-planned workshop.  Going to the historical sites was a walk back in time, as the speakers told the stories about the Winnebasgo, I could almost feel their presence, what an awesome experience. There was nothing boring about this workshop, it kept you on the edge of your seat.”

Gerald Johnson of New Hampton, was enthralled with the Ho-Chunk language being spoken by Jon Greendeer. Gerald said, “I was also very delighted to learn of the amazing rock art in NE Iowa”.

Cecily Harsh de Gutierrez, a volunteer from Colorado Springs, stated, “Jon Greendeer was a very engaging and dynamic speaker able to convey his message about the Ho-Chunk Nation with passion as well as humor.

Co-moderator of the workshop, Clair Blong stated, “We are very thankful to the Ho-Chunk Nation leadership team for their very strong and passionate participation, to the many excellent speakers and the large and attentive audience. The workshop success was due to the many very dedicated volunteers and their extraordinary team effort”.

Clair noted while several interesting topics are being considered for the next annual workshop of the German American Museum, one of specific interest is “Preserving Ethnic Heritages (such as Native American, German, Czech, Norwegian, Irish) in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities”. We intent to explore offering the workshop as a credit hour course with local colleges and universities.

Leander Stammeyer Celebrates 97th Birthday with Family and Friends

On March 31st Leander Stammeyer celebrated his 97th birthday with family and friends at the senior citizen home in Sumner, Iowa. Lee’s wife, Marian Schaufenbuel, of almost 70 years passed away in 2014.

Joining Lee for the event were his siblings: Marie Schaufenbuel of Sumner, Iowa; Frank Stammeyer of Oelwein, Iowa, and Joseph Stammeyer of Waco, Iowa. His children attending were Dan Stammeyer of Marion, Iowa; Mary Lee Johns of Hereford, Arizona; and John Stammeyer of Newton, Iowa. Lee’s grandchildren attending were: Jeff Stammeyer, Jenny Colerick, Matthew Johns, and Tim and Joseph Stammeyer.

Lee’s great grandchildren attending were: Marcus and Ciera Colerick, Blake and Emerson Stammeyer, and Andrew and Paige Johns. Friends attending included Audrey Klemmer Drilling, Dan Kuennen and Clair Blong of St. Lucas. Everyone enjoyed the celebration and Lee was very delighted with the festive afternoon. Audrey Drilling said, "I was very happy to see Lee so engaged with his many guests."

Lee’s illustrious lifetime journey has been filled with many adventures and blessings. In 2016 Lee was selected as the first Citizen of the Year Award, in St. Lucas, Iowa, his hometown. Lee in his quiet unassuming manner made outstanding contributions to the community without ever seeking recognition and praise. 

Lee was critical in the founding of the St. Lucas Historical Society and establishing the rapidly growing German American Museum.  Lee put his funds into the pool to purchase the school building and organize the Society and Museum in the winter of 2003.  These were uncertain times and many sceptics were amused at the thought of a Museum in the village area for celebrating the German heritage.  Lee quietly urged the core group to move beyond talk to action.

To make the Museum a reality, Lee set about designing, building and installing 16 high quality oak display cases in the Museum.  They are the centerpieces of many displays and exhibits.  In fact, they are admired as much as the exhibits.  Lee, in his quiet and unassuming manner, just did it. As you may know, Lee is a master carpenter and woodworker, and built beautiful kitchen cabinets for many homes in the area. 

Lee's love of country, led him to join the Merchant Marine, an auxiliary service of the U.S. Navy early in World War II.  In those dark and uncertain months of 1942, after Pearl Harbor, Lee was assigned to convoy supply ships convoys that crossed the perilous waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans to support Allied forces in North Africa.  Later Lee’s convoy sailings took him into the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea in support of landings in Italy in 1943 and the Normandy landings in France in June of 1944. 

Lee saw the tenuous and fragile nature of human life when convoy ships were suddenly torpedoed and sank, sometimes with many crew lives lost.  His love of fellow service men and women shows in his dedication to the American Legion and to preserving their memories in the military section of the German American Museum. Lee has quietly gathered the uniforms and other artifacts of many service men and women to give recognition to his fellow comrades in arms.

Lee with the generous help of many veterans has compiled the very large volume that contains the service record of every sailor, soldier and airmen from the St. Lucas area. In addition, Lee compiled a biography sheet on every person who served in the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean Conflict, the Cold War, the Vietnam Conflict and the Persian Gulf War.  These compilations are an invaluable contribution to the history of the community and are highly sought research volumes in the Museum. 

In recent years, Lee turned his energies to saving the cultural and religious heritage of the community. He made recordings of many traditional prayers and the rosary. Lee then turned his attention to recording over 20 Americana songs in the CD format and then recorded many traditional German prayers and songs that were sung in the 1920s and 1930s at St. Luke’s Church. "Lee really likes to preserve our heritage," Clair Blong notes, "and he is such an amazing source of historical information on the community."

Two years ago, Lee spent the long winter months compiling a booklet that includes all the businesses and tradesmen in the St. Lucas area in 1950 and in 2015.  This comprehensive listing, Lee says "Demonstrates that St. Lucas was a very self-sufficient and self-reliant community. You had someone who could make or fix anything.  The recent listing shows how many of those skills and tradesmen must come from other towns and areas."

Lee’s lifetime of business experience has been a blessing to the community and the Museum. Over the past 15 years, Lee has provided clear headed options for window restoration, heating and air conditioning, roofing, plumbing, blacksmith shop painting and especially electrical work in the Museum he dearly loves. The Museum has come a long way from 2003 due to Lee's insights and persistence. 

In a recent interview with Rosemary Kuennen Most, Lee shared his memories of growing up in the St. Lucas area, his family, his education, seminary training and his strong faith.  Lee was vivid about his short-wave radio training in Chicago, his harrowing service in the Merchant Marine Service, lifetime of carpentry and electrical work experiences, his passion for family history, woodworking and community service. As Rosemary notes, "Lee is a friend and colleague of everyone in the community.  His Citizenship Award recognizes his many accomplishments and strong dedication and service to his community and church."

At the party’s end, Mary Lee Johns shared, "Thank you to everyone for attending dad’s 97th birthday party. Dad really enjoyed seeing so many of his family and friends. He really liked reminiscing with everyone."

Bank 1st Donates to German American Museum

L to R: Mel Bodensteiner, Janet Bodensteiner, Clair Blong, Jim Moss, JoAnn Boyer, and Nathan Dietzenbach

On January 8th, Bank 1st of West Union presented a check for $2,000 to the St. Lucas Historical Society. Jim Moss, representing the board of directors of Bank 1st, stated, "This donation is in honor of the late Mark Mihm, a long-time board member of Bank 1st and resident of St. Lucas. This donation represents the Bank's philosophy of giving back to the community. Bank 1st maintains a branch bank in St. Lucas."

Clair Blong, representing the St. Lucas Historical Society, expressed the heartfelt thanks and appreciation of the Society for this generous donation for the upgrading of the electrical wiring and the installation of LED lighting in the exhibit and study rooms in the German American Museum. This work will help update the Museum's electrical system and lighting to current needs and standards.

Clair stated, "The support of Bank 1st and its predecessor, First National Bank, have been critical in the development and growth of the Museum and its activities.  Bank 1st was there at the crucial times when we needed support in establishing the Society, in restoring the Museum building, in publishing the Newsletter and, most recently, in creating our internet website. Our continued thanks to Bank 1st for supporting these critical community cultural needs."

The school building, the home of the former St. Luke Grade and High School and later the St. Luke and St. John Grade School, has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since July 2005.  This large brick school building was constructed in ten months in 1911. This very handsome and architecturally significant building is now the home for the German American Museum, Library and Family History Center.

The St. Lucas Historical Society, a 15 year-old non-profit charitable organization, supports the German American Museum. The Museum's goals are: preserving the past, celebrating the present, and embracing the future.  The Museum has a growing collection of local historical artifacts, documents and photos; a rapidly expanding collection of German and American historical materials; and an extensive collection of genealogical histories of local families. 

The Museum exhibits focus on eight key themes: the Native American historical presence; why Europeans came to this area: the role of the church and religion in establishing the community; the importance of education and school; the critical roles of agriculture and industrial arts in the development and growth of the community; the role of social organizations; the role of sports in shaping community identity; and the role of military service and education in integrating the community into the larger region and nation. The German American Museum is a member of the Iowa Museum Association and the Society for German American Studies. 

Marion Hahnfeldt, a journalist from Hanover, Germany, toured the Museum in October 2017 to learn and write about the German heritage in the community and the Museum. At the close of her visit, she commented, "The Museum represents an endeavor that is of, by, and for the people, truly a community effort."

Visit the Museum website, "" to learn about the Museum, current and past events, Museum projects, new exhibits, newsletters, history, contact information and ways to volunteer and donate.

Workshop on Hidden in Plain Sight: The Native American Presence

In his address, Russ Baldner, of Spillville, noted that Northeast Iowa has a rich Native American heritage that spans more than 10,000 years of prehistory and 350 years of history as preserved in the archaeological, oral and written record. In his keynote remarks and with artifacts from the Paleoindian, Archaic, Woodland, Oneota and protohistoric-early historic cultural periods, Russ provided the larger prehistoric and historic context of which the local Native American presence is a part. Russ complimented the organizers of the Workshop for helping to increase awareness of Native American history and culture in the area, and the interested public that attended the all-day session.

In his keynote remarks, William Quackenbush, the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin, headquartered in Black River Falls, Wisconsin, outlined the past, present and future of the Ho-Chunk Nation and the challenges. Mr. Quakenbush drew the comparison of the forced removals (first to Northeast Iowa, then northwest Minnesota, then Blue Earth, Minnesota, and then South Dakota) and its similarities to the Cherokee Nation’s forced removal (the current polite anthropological term is “clearance”) to Oklahoma and terrible human suffering and loss of life. Bill’s insightful remarks on their history, and the cultural and economic impacts of casinos on the Ho-Chunk Nation, were very well received by the 85 attendees from many towns throughout Northeast Iowa.

In his remarks on the Indian Sub-agency of the 1840s, located 1½ miles Northeast of St. Lucas, Al Becker, the well-known local historian from Fort Atkinson, outlined the ill-formed and implemented program of the Federal Government to dramatically change the culture of the

Winnebago Tribe (now Ho-Chunk Nation) from woodland hunter- gathers to European style farming. This failed social engineering project and the demand for more land by increasing numbers of European settlers, led to quick removal of the Winnebago Tribe to the wilderness in northern Minnesota.

William Burke of Lansing focused his remarks on the movement of persons across the north Iowa landscape and why certain courses of travel were chosen, mostly related to the landscape character. Much of this movement was trade related, from the Native Americans, to the U S military, to the settlers, to industrial development. Bill’s remarks come from his 2000 book on The Upper Mississippi Valley: How the Landscape Shaped our Heritage.

As Cultural Preservation Officer at Effigy Mounds, Albert LeBeau, of the Lakota Nation of South Dakota, presented on the cultural and religious elements of Native Americans in our large cultural environment. Albert, an expert on mounds and rock art, noted their presence through the Northeast Iowa Region area.

Leading off the afternoon session, Vera Wiest of Fort Atkinson, told John Blong family stories about their encounters with the Winnebago Tribal members summer encampment in the 1920 and 1930s along the Turkey River about 2 miles East of St. Lucas. Vera recalled her mother’s affection for them and always offering food and a helping hand.

Adrian Kuennen, moved the audience with his touching and riveting stories of Joe Kuennen, his father, and Joe’s recollections of the Winnebago Tribal summer encampments in the 1920s and 1930s along the Turkey River near their farm. The Winnebago visits in the 1940s and 1950s were more focused on collecting herbal plants for medicinal purposes and for quietly honoring the graves of their ancestors. In walking those lands today, John strongly senses the spiritual presence of others.

Elaine Burke of Lisbon, Iowa, told the story of finding a Spanish silver coin in the 1950s on the Schaufenbuel farm south of Waucoma near the Turkey River. A historic Indian trail had crossed their farm and may account for the coin’s presence in their garden. Other similar Spanish coins have been found near Fort Atkinson and farmland near to Goddard trading post.

The Vagts family of West Union and Ossian surprised the participants with their dramatic displays of prehistoric arrow points found over the years. The extensive collection was discovered on family farmland.

Jerry Mishak of New Hampton displayed several Indian and early trade weapons and demonstrated the use of black powder muskets. Gerald Johnson, a local historian from New Hampton, shared informally on his knowledge of prehistoric mounds and sites in Chickasaw County.

The final speaker of the day, Terry Landsgaard of West Union, shared with the audience his impressive knowledge of the life of Emma Big Bear and her basketry skills. Terry dramatically highlighted the defining features of Winnebago baskets, and especially those of Emma Big Bear.

Regarding the workshop, Terry said, "I believe that this workshop on Native American presence in Northeast Iowa was very well attended. The diversity of speakers and their various topics gave us a good blend of styles of presentation and materials covered".

The moderator of the Workshop, Clair Blong, was very pleased with the audience's keen interest in the wealth of information presented by the speakers on the historical and contemporary encounters of Europeans with the Ho-Chunk and Lakota Nations.

Clair stated "The audience was deeply honored by the presence and participation of the representatives of the Ho-Chunk and Lakota Nations. We intend to plan another workshop with our Ho-Chunk and Lakota colleagues for later next year. Meanwhile the Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin Cultural Resources staff offered to advise the German American Museum on ways to improve its Native American exhibition."

Jeanette Dietzenbach of Decorah, a founding member of the St. Lucas Historical Society, stated that the workshop speakers helped her place a lot of bits of historical information into coherent patterns. Jeanette felt that William Quackenbush of the Ho-Chunk Nation and Albert LeBeau of the Lakota Nation revealed the spiritual side of their lives. She especially liked their emphasis on protecting the remains of their ancestors and their blending of the Christian values of humility and respect for others with their love of the goodness of Mother Earth.

Teresas Lenius of Fayette, found the workshop very helpful in giving context to research work on Whirling Thunder and his people who camped just outside Fayette. Tereasa feels we need more of these workshops to explore and understand the past of the area.